Western Libraries

Citing Business Sources - APA Style

The American Psychology Association has a style guide that is used in the faculty of social science and behavioural sciences. This guide will assist you in creating a works cited list/bibliography with examples relevant to business resources.

A PDF version of this guide is available here.

Reference List offers an example for citing your source (alphabetically) at the end of your report.
In-Text Citation offers an example for citing your sources within your paper, following a sentence.
Footnotes/Endnotes are not recommended with the use of APA style.

If you require assistance, please feel free to email us!


Advertisements

Example: Proctor & Gamble Co. (1937). New Shampoo Startles the Country With Its Beautifying Results  [Advertisement]. Ad*Access. Retrieved from http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/adaccess_BH0397/

In-text citation: (Proctor & Gamble Co., 1937)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Analyst/Investment Reports

Example: Deutsche Bank. (2013, September 19). Microsoft [Stock report]. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from Thomson One database.

In-text citation: (Deutsche Bank, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Annual Reports

Example: Canadian Tire Corporation. (2012). Annual report. Retrieved from http://corp.canadiantire.ca/EN/Investors/FinancialReports/Annual%20Reports%20Library/CTC_AR_2012.pdf

In-text citation: (Canadian Tire Corporation, 2012)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Blog Post

Example: Thompson, NT. (2013, September 19). 13 Years, 175 Million Users, Little Profit: What Pandora’s New CEO Needs to Do Next [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/09/13-years-175-million-users-0-profit-what-pandoras-new-ceo-needs-to-do-next/

In-text citation: (Thompson, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Bloomberg

Example: Bloomberg L.P. (2013). Beta for General Motors 07/01/11 to 07/01/13. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.

In-text citation: (Bloomberg, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Books (Electronic)

With one (1) author

Example: Vandenbosch, B. (2003). Designing solutions for your business problems: a structured process for managers and consultants. Retrieved from https://www.lib.uwo.ca/cgi-bin/ezpauthn.cgi?url=http://lib.myilibrary.com?id=41045

In-text citation: (Vandenbosch, 2003)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With two (2) authors

Example: Kotler, P., & Kotler, Milton. (2013). Market your way to growth. Retrieved from https://www.lib.uwo.ca/cgi-bin/ezpauthn.cgi?url=http://lib.myilibrary.com/detail.asp?ID=422990

In-text citation: (Kotler & Kotler, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With three (3) or more authors

If there are more than seven names, use "et al."

Example: Smith, D., Jones, T. & Austin, B. (2013). Market your way to growth. Retrieved from https://www.lib.uwo.ca/cgi-bin/ezpauthn.cgi?url=http://lib.myilibrary.com/detail.asp?ID=422990

In-text citation: (Smith, Jones and Austin, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Editor, no author

Example: Kandampully, J., ed. (2013). Service Management: The New Paradigm in Retailing. Retrieved from https://www.lib.uwo.ca/cgi-bin/ezpauthn.cgi?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1554-1

In-text citation: (Kandampully, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Chapter or article in edited book

Example: Quintavalle, A. (2013). Uber Luxury: For Billionaires Only. In J. Hoffmann (Ed.), Global luxury trends: innovative strategies for emerging markets (pp. 213–225). Retrieved from https://www.lib.uwo.ca/cgi-bin/ezpauthn.cgi?url=http://lib.myilibrary.com/detail.asp?ID=426008

In-text citation: (Quintavalle, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Books (Print)

With one (1) author

Example: Smith, D. (2013). Corporate Responsibility. New York: Thames Publishing.

In-text citation: (Smith, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With two (2) authors

Example: Smith, D., & Jones, T. (2013). Corporate Responsibility. New York: Thames Publishing.

In-text citation: (Smith & Jones, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With three (3) or more authors

If there are more than seven names, use "et al."

Example: Smith, D., Jones, T. & Austin, B. (2013). Corporate Responsibility. New York: Thames Publishing.

In-text citation: (Smith, Jones and Brooks, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

No author given

Example: Corporate Responsibility. (2013) New York: Thames Publishing.

In-text citation: (Corporate Responsibility, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Editor, no author

Example: Smith, D. (Ed.) (2013). Corporate Responsibility. New York: Thames Publishing.

In-text citation: (Smith, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Chapter or article in edited book

Example: German, D. (2013). Sustainable Development. In Simon Cook (Ed.), Corporate Responsibility (pp. 51-84). New York: Thames Publishing.

In-text citation: (German, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Cases (Print)

With one (1) author

Example: Hagen, JM. (2000). Ben & Jerry's - Japan. Ivey No. 9A99A037. London, ON: Ivey Publishing.

In-text citation: (Hagen, 2000)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With two (2) authors

Example: Parker, S. & Mark, K. (2010). Entrepreneurs at Twitter: Building a Brand, a Social Tool or a Tech Powerhouse? Ivey No. 9B10M028. London, ON: Ivey Publishing.

In-text citation: (Parker & Mark, 2010)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Cases (Electronic)

With one (1) author

Example: Beamish, PW. (2011). Chinese Fireworks Industry - Revised. Retrieved from https://www.iveycases.com/ProductView.aspx?id=45169

In-text citation: (Beamish, 2011)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With two (2) authors

Example: Morrison, A., & Bouqet, C. (2013). Swatch and the Global Watch Industry. Retrieved from https://www.iveycases.com/ProductView.aspx?id=44266

In-text citation: (Morrison & Bouqet, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Company Reports

Example: Mergent. (2013). Apple Inc. general company information report. Retrieved June 21, 2013, from Mergent Online database.

In-text citation: (Mergent, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Conference Proceedings (Online)

Example: Surulivel, S.T., Banu, C.V., Amudha, R., & Charumathi, B. (2012, August 17). Effectiveness of information disclosure of banks operating in India on their web sites — An empirical study. Proceedings of Management Issues in Emerging Economies, 277, 8-13. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/icp.jsp?arnumber=6316807

In-text citation: (Surulivel, Banu, Amudha & Charumathi, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Corporate Author

Example: Conference Board of Canada. (2013, July-August). Travel Exclusive: Key Trends for the Travel Industry. Retrieved from http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-library/abstract.aspx?did=5757

In-text citation: (Conference Board of Canada, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Country Report

Example: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. (2013, August). India country report. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.

In-text citation: (The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Datastream

Example: Thomson Reuters Datastream (2012). Apple Inc. -  time series data. Retrieved from Datastream Advance database.

In-text citation: (Thomson Reuters Datastream, 2012)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Dissertation/Thesis

Example: Hart, K. (2013). The Role of Self-Brand Overlap in Consumer Evaluations of Brand Portfolio Management Decisions (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/1502/

In-text citation: (Hart, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Focus Groups

In-text citation: (J. Doe, focus group, November 15, 2015)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Images or Displays

In-text citation: Alvarez, Andrew. (2015). Sector vs Industry Costs. Retrieved from IBIS World database.

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Interviews

Example: Reference is not necessary for Works Cited list

In-text citation: (J. Doe, personal communication, August 31, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Journal Articles (Electronic)

With one (1) author

Example: Smith, D. (2013). Managerial Science Success. [Electronic version]. Project Management Review, 12(3), 252-264.

In-text citation: (Smith, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With two (2) authors

Example: Smith, D. & Jones, T. (2013). Managerial Science Success. [Electronic version]. Project Management Review, 12(3), 252-264.

In-text citation: (Smith & Jones, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With three (3) or more authors

If there are more than seven names, use "et al."

Example: Smith, D., Jones, T. & Cook, S. (2013). Managerial Science Success. [Electronic version]. Project Management Review, 12(3), 252-264.

In-text citation: (Smith, Jones and Cook, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

No author given

Example: Managerial Science Success. [Electronic version]. (2013). Project Management Review, 12(3), 252-264.

In-text citation: (Managerial Science Success, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Journal Articles (Print)

With one (1) author

Example: Smith, D. (2013). Managerial Science Success. Project Management Review, 12(3), 252-264.

In-text citation: (Smith, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With two (2) authors

Example: Smith, D. & Jones, T. (2013). Managerial Science Success. Project Management Review, 12(3), 252-264.

In-text citation: (Smith, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With three (3) or more authors

If there are more than seven names, use "et al."

Example: Smith, D., Jones, T. & Cook, S. (2013). Managerial Science Success. Project Management Review, 12(3), 252-264.

In-text citation: (Smith, Jones and Cook, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

No author given

Example: Managerial Science Success. (2013) Project Management Review, 12(3), 252-264.

In-text citation: (Managerial Science Success, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Newspaper Articles (Electronic)

With one (1) author

Example: Smith, D. (2013, March 19). Buying a Home. The Financial Times. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved June 14, 2013, from http://www.financial.com/

In-text citation: (Smith, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

No author given

Example: Buying a Home. [Electronic Version]. (2013, March 19).The Financial Times. Retrieved June 14, 2013, from http://www.financial.com/

In-text citation: (Buying a Home, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Newspaper Articles (Print)

With one (1) author

Example: Smith, D. (2013, March 19). Buying a home. The Financial Times, pp. G-1.

In-text citation: (Smith, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

No author given

Example: Buying a home. (2013, March 19). The Financial Times, pp. G1.

In-text citation: (Buying a Home, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Maps

Example: Hamilton, S. Danone's major investments in China. (2012). [Map Dec. 21, 2007]. Doing business with China : avoiding the pitfalls. Retrieved from https://www.lib.uwo.ca/cgi-bin/ezpauthn.cgi?url=http://lib.myilibrary.com?id=338086

In-text citation: (Hamilton, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Marketing/Industry Report

Example: MarketLine. (2013, July 24). Europe - Online Retail. [industry profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.

In-text citation: (MarketLine, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Podcast (Audio)

With one (1) presenter

Example: Ryssdal, K. (2013, August 30). The Yosemite economy. Podcast retrieved from http://www.marketplace.org/podcasts

In-text citation: (Ryssdal, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

With two (2) presenters

Example: Penn, C. & Wall, J. (2013, June 29). Dave Delaney on New Business Networking. Podcast retrieved from http://www.marketingovercoffee.com/

In-text citation: (Penn & Wall, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

PowerPoint Slides/Presentations

Example: Jones, S. (2013). Business leaders in the twenty-first century [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uwo.ca/business/

In-text citation: (Jones, August 31, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

SEDAR/EDGAR (Company Filings)

Example: Royal Bank of Canada. (2013, September 5). Prospectus supplement. Retrieved from http://www.sedar.com

In-text citation: (Royal Bank of Canada, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Statistics/Datasets

Statistics Canada or other government statistical source

Example: Statistics Canada. (2013). Detailed household final consumption expenditure, provincial and territorial [384-0041]. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=3840041&tabMode=dataTable&srchLan=-1&p1=-1&p2=35

In-text citation: (Statistics Canada, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Surveys

In-text citation: J. Smith (Dog Walking 2257 Feasibility Study Survey, January 5, 2016)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Telephone Call

Use this format: (Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

In-text citation(A. Jones, personal communication, December 15, 2015)

Twitter/Tweet

Example: Peston, Robert. [Peston]. (2013, March 4). In last 3 months of 2012, 11 UK banks borrowed £9.5bn of cheap money from Bank of Eng's FLS, & cut lending in UK by £2.4bn. Healthy? [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/Peston/statuses/308544305306415104

In-text citation: (Peston, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Video (Streaming)

Example: Films Media Group, prod. "Sheryl Sandberg: Women Must Learn to "Lean In" Nightline. ABC. N.d. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2013. Web. 20 Sept. 2013.

In-text citation: (Films Media Group, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

Websites

Example: Loblaws. (2013). Who we are Loblaws supermarkets: a brief history [Online]. Retrieved from http://www.loblaws.ca/en_CA/community/who-we-are.html

In-text citation: (Loblaws, 2013)

Footnotes/Endnotes: APA does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes.

 


Last updated 09/2013, AV